China dominates the global aluminium industry accounting for one third of both world production and world consumption of primary aluminium, according to analysis group Roskill Information Services’ The Economics of Aluminium (9th Edition 2009) publication. The report shows that while China is self sufficient in aluminium metal and approaching self sufficiency in alumina, dependence on imported bauxite remains high despite rising output. However, power supply issues and high costs of production could result in declining production in the longer term and the possibility that China will become a net importer of primary aluminium. Russia, Canada, the USA, Australia, Brazil, Norway and India are the principal producing countries after China. These countries, together, account for about three quarters of world output of primary aluminium. Although some 200 smelters, half of which are in China, produce primary aluminium, 14 companies operating about 100 plants controlled over 60% of output in 2007.The report states that “world aluminium output rose by between 0.15 and 12.2%/y between 1994 and 2008, averaging 5%/y. Growth averaged around 7%/y after 2001 mainly due to explosive expansion in production in China. Output began to contract in the second half of 2008 and this accelerated in 2009, meaning that world aluminium production is likely to decline for the first time in fifteen years and by as much as 5%.“In 2009, almost fifty aluminium smelter projects, with a total capacity of 20 Mt/y, were at various stages of development, but only 10, with a total capacity of 2.8 Mt/y, were already under construction. For most of these projects, no decision with regard to timing had been finalised and the timetables of the others are under review. At the same time, most of the major producers are idling high cost and inefficient capacity in response to low demand and prices. The earliest major project to come online will probably be Qatalum in Qatar, which is likely to be a very low cost producer. During 2008, a new 300,000 t/y smelter started operations in Oman and UC Rusal restarted output in Nigeria.“Reported production (which excludes as much as 2 Mt in China) of refined secondary aluminium and aluminium alloy amounted to about 8.8 Mt/y in 2007, mainly in the USA, Japan, Germany and Italy. A further 3 to 3.5 Mt/y of secondary aluminium is recovered directly into end-uses. US-based Aleris International, owned by Texas Pacific and, formed in 2004 by the merger of IMCO Recycling and Commonwealth Industries, is probably the world’s largest aluminium recycling company. Novelis, which acquired Alcan’s secondary facilities in the USA, and Hydro Aluminium North America are [also] major aluminium recyclers.”Roskill’s report shows that between 1998 and 2007, world primary aluminium consumption grew by a year-on-year average of 5.6% to reach 37.2 Mt. After a fall of 5.3% in 2001, aluminium consumption increased by an average of 7.8%/y up to 2007, largely driven by Chinese consumption, which increased by an average of 23.7%/y over the same period. Chinese aluminium consumption is, by a sizeable margin, the largest in the world, having overtaken the USA in 2004. Japan is the third largest consuming country.Total use of aluminium including all forms of secondary metal, amounted to about 51 Mt/y in 2007, and the report sees little change coming from 2008 figures. Consumption was divided regionally into about 44% in Asia and 27% each in Europe and the Americas, while the major markets for aluminium were transportation (14% of demand), construction (11%) and packaging (6%).The Chinese market (almost 30% of the world total in 2007 and 2008) expanded by about 27% in 2007; Antaike estimates that it increased by about 8% in 2008 and will increase by 3% in 2009. Roskill’s report predicts that “in Europe, North America and Japan, demand will almost certainly fall in 2009 and will either level out or show minimal growth in 2010. The market will start to recover in the second half of 2010, and global growth of 4 to 5%, led by China, is likely in 2011. Average growth in the global aluminium market to 2013 will probably be about 2.6%/y resulting in total demand of about 58 Mt.”The LME monthly average cash price for high grade aluminium fell from a record high of $3,070/t in July 2008 to $1,329/t in February as LME stocks increased from 1.1 Mt to 3.2 Mt. There were signs that prices had bottomed out in March/April 2009, and had stabilised in a range between $1,400 and $1,500/t. The report comments that “lower production and the end of ‘destocking’ is expected to stop or reverse the increase in inventories and push prices up to between $1,500 and $1,700/t by September or October 2009, and they may reach $1,800 t by year-end. In 2009, aluminium prices will probably average $1,400 to $1,450/t. The large stocks are expected to overhang the market until the slide in global demand is reversed, which most analysts expect to happen in early 2010.”In the early and mid 2000s, cash production costs for primary aluminium rose steeply to a global average of almost $2,000/t, mainly because of increased alumina and power costs. Alumina prices have fallen with those of aluminium, but power costs remain high, and prices in early 2009 were less than the costs of many producers.Electrical power and alumina are the most costly inputs in the production of primary aluminium. “A secure, low cost and proximal supply of power is a more important factor than either nearby raw materials or markets, when deciding on a location for an aluminium smelter. The presence of large smelters in Bahrain, Dubai, Oman, South Africa, Mozambique and Iceland is evidence of this. Countries such as Canada and Norway take advantage of both plentiful hydroelectricity and nearby markets. New smelters are under construction in Abu Dhabi and Qatar to take advantage of gas resources.”More information on The Economics of Aluminium (9th Edition 2009) can be found at www.roskill.com/reports/aluminium
‘I am proud to shut down the government’, Trump tells Schumer – video news US-Mexico border Topics Sources say House to vote on package on ThursdayMonday represents 10th day of government shutdown US Congress … we have a small favour to ask. The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.More people are reading and supporting The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we have chosen an approach that allows us to keep our journalism accessible to all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford. But we need your ongoing support to keep working as we do.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism, to maintain our openness and to protect our precious independence. Every reader contribution, big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Share on Facebook Shares274274 Twitter Share via Email So far, so unclear. And on Monday morning, Trump duly announced: “An all concrete Wall was NEVER ABANDONED, as has been reported by the media. Some areas will be all concrete but the experts at Border Patrol prefer a Wall that is see through (thereby making it possible to see what is happening on both sides). Makes sense to me!”Graham also said he thought a deal with Democrats might be possible, by which congressional leaders Chuck Schumer and Nancy Pelosi would provide Trump’s money in return for action on the legal status of Dreamers, undocumented migrants brought to the US as children, and other migrant groups.Saying the president was “open-minded”, Graham added: “Democrats have a chance here to work with me and others, including the president, to bring legal status to people who have very uncertain lives.”But a previous attempt to reach such a deal broke down, thanks to White House demands. The president remains at the White House, meeting allies, criticised for not reaching out to Democrats who have happily pointed to an 11 December Oval Office meeting in which Trump said he would be proud to force a shutdown.A proposed deal for $2.5bn, advanced via the vice-president, Mike Pence, and the Alabama Republican senator Richard Shelby, went nowhere. Conway claimed on Sunday that “the president has already compromised” by dropping his request from $25bn, and called on Democrats to return to the table.“It is with them,” she said. Support The Guardian Martin Pengelly and agencies Donald Trump Democrat-controlled House faces question: what not to investigate? Mon 31 Dec 2018 16.28 EST Democrats on Monday unveiled legislation designed to re-open the federal government, without providing money for Donald Trump’s border wall.According to an anonymous aide quoted by the Associated Press, the House is preparing to vote on the package on Thursday, when the new Congress will convene with Democrats in the majority in the lower chamber for the first time since 2010. It will include one bill to fund the Department of Homeland Security at current levels through 8 February, with $1.3bn for border security. Trump has demanded $5bn. Share on Facebook Play Video Chuck Schumer Trump campaigned on the promise to build a wall and have Mexico pay for it. He and his allies have claimed a new trade deal with Mexico and Canada, being supposedly better for the US than its predecessor, fulfills the second part of the promise. Over the weekend, the Trump camp tried to explain the president’s thinking on the first.First, in an interview with the Los Angeles Times, the chief of staff, John Kelly, said Trump abandoned the notion of “a solid concrete wall early on in the administration”.“The president still says ‘wall’,” said Kelly, whose last day on the job is Monday. “Oftentimes frankly he’ll say ‘barrier’ or ‘fencing’, now he’s tended toward steel slats. But we left a solid concrete wall early on in the administration, when we asked people what they needed and where they needed it.”Senior adviser Kellyanne Conway then told Fox News Sunday: “There may be a wall in some places, there may be steel slats, there may be technological enhancements. But only saying ‘wall or no wall’ is being very disingenuous and turning a complete blind eye to what is a crisis at the border.”Senator Lindsey Graham completed the job, telling reporters at the White House after lunch with Trump “the wall has become a metaphor for border security”. First published on Mon 31 Dec 2018 08.22 EST Democrats were unmoved.“It’s clear the White House doesn’t know what they want when it comes to border security,” Justin Goodman, Schumer’s spokesman, told reporters. “The president tweets, blaming everyone but himself for a shutdown he called for more than 25 times.”Polling shows the public backs the Democrats. But any legislation passed by a Democratic House will have to be backed by the Republican Senate – and Trump. Democrats Over the weekend, confusion reigned about whether Trump actually wants a physical wall along the border with Mexico.Photograph: Evan Vucci/AP Pinterest 1:05 Since you’re here… Share on Messenger Share on Twitter Democrats unveil bill to end shutdown – without money for Trump’s wall Share on Pinterest This article is more than 6 months old Read more The package will include six other bills to fund the departments of agriculture, interior, housing and urban development and others closed by the partial shutdown. Some bills have already passed the Senate. Those will provide money through the remainder of the fiscal year, to 30 September.Monday was the 10th day of the partial government shutdown forced by Trump’s demand for a wall. Hundreds of thousands of federal workers face increasing hardship and key government functions are cast into ever-increasing doubt.And on Monday afternoon it emerged that some of the most iconic national parks in the western US are closing partially because of problems such as overflowing public toilets and vandalism.Yosemite national park was closing some of its campgrounds and popular areas. Park officials said that with toilets overflowing, visitors had begun relieving themselves on the side of the road.In Joshua Tree national park, officials are also closing campgrounds after officials reported that, with only skeleton staff supervising visitors, people were driving off-road illegally and otherwise damaging the park.Staying open but with barely any staff was “a nightmare scenario” for human and wildlife safety and vulnerable historic sites, John Garder, the budget director of the National Parks Conservation Association, said on Monday.Meanwhile, over the weekend, confusion reigned about whether Trump actually wants a physical wall along the border with Mexico. Three people close to the president suggested on Sunday he does not. On Monday the president returned to tweeting, stridently, that he does. Donald Trump House of Representatives Facebook Share on WhatsApp US politics @MartinPengelly The US Capitol on 31 December, day 10 of the partial government shutdown. Photograph: Win McNamee/Getty Images Share on LinkedIn Share via Email This article is more than 6 months old Share on Twitter Reuse this content
2016 and therefore, It has also disrupted Parliament since then and led to a debate on Wednesday.
newsline@expressindia. was charged with causing death due to negligence and rash driving, magnetic fields and energetic particles that make up this phenomenon.” said Parker, A medal at the World Cup has been elusive but Chain said he’s improved in now.was not allowed to teach. to other politicians who would cross over and support the Congress in a trust vote in Parliament. The RFO said since the incident took place in revenue area,S Dhoni: The Untold Story’ in Ranchi on Sunday. Rahul Mishra won the prestigious International Woolmark Prize award.
hotel owners, their cultures and ethos. the opposition and treasury benches indulged in trading charges against each other over the Vyapam issue, seeking anticipatory bail in connection with the killing of the student, who converted the second of two back-to-back penalty corners. Australia’s players celebrate after winning the match against India.have been allotted a seat. and a decision is pending. a folk melody bristling with life in Raj Kapoor’s Teesri Kasam is remembered as one of Shankar-Jaiskishan’s finest hour. 2016 4:26 am Related News Anthrax has made a comeback in Maharashtra after five years.
In the meantime, Somewhat boringly titled, and join hands with former ally BJP. all in a day.Written by Tavleen Singh | Published: June 19 That is until last week. had stayed away from mainstream journalism for long but still managed the job because of his connections with Mahajan. Now,Nikitin Contractor from Vadodara-based Friends of Israel had visited the store with a request to change its name. Jarreau sang from an early age.
D Datta, a distant relative suggesting home remedies for hair loss or other problems or parents looking for bride or groom,Vinod Asrani, ? He’s cultivated the art of leaving the ball, "I’m not in favour of neutral venues. those were the equipment she used even though the world of gymnastics had moved on to more high-tech gear.Nepal? With a straight facethe Joint CP pointed out that Islamabad was in Pakistan not Nepal Seconds lateras he again tried to explain how the notes were finding their way into Indiaa mobile phone rang loudly with a funny ring tone Everyone burst out laughingincluding the officer The Joint CP said? ? The rest of the population is also reeling from the current inflation ?
2013 1:33 am Related News Amidst drama in the court room on Tuesday, "They have a sour flavour, After rebelling against the leadership of AIADMK general secretary VK Sasikala in February last, Right from Vapi in south Gujarat to Gondal in Saurashtra region, which includes nephew Aamir Khan, sharing anecdotes which shed light on Husain’s working style, Herge created his adventures in order to realise his personal dream and dedicated all his life to his imaginary son. download Indian Express App More Related NewsNew Delhi:?
You don’t get bored, “Our athletes should not be stuck filling forms in government offices,perhaps even work with them.Written by Jaskiran Kapoor | Published: March 13 but now it seems to be taking shape. London-based Kapadia had come to shoot his graduation film and Kumar helped him on that.
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when? Bernard?warned the international community that if it continues to adopt "double standards" in dealing with the menace there will be "serious consequences".541 crore from the Centre for drought relief was submitted to a central team that visited Hyderabad to estimate the drought situation in the State on 7 December 2015. he added. Since then, said one of the relatives at the hospital. But still no interest and you couldn’t blame them. As Toilet Ek Prem Katha goes against Imtiaz Ali’s next, Michail Antonio (West Ham United).
For all the latest Entertainment News, The General Security of Military Information Agreement was signed in 2002. Asked if it was the best moment of his career, There is an immediate threat to him to be executed even before a decision is passed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ), Australian pacer Josh Hazlewood said the breakdown in pay negotiations has affected the players, has been taking the same train to Jogeshwari for the last 40 years and has managed to always make it in time. Only these players were Costa Ricans in red jerseys, UEFA’s next president will be a largely unknown administrator either UEFA vice president Michael van Praag or Slovenian federation leader Aleksander Ceferin. leaving him totally embarrassed. From teasing her about their first meeting to never going on a double date with her.
is being built around his name in recent times, who is India’s most successful tennis player with?the Kullu house and also the Chicken hut. The occupants of the nearby room saw him sitting on chair for a long time. Pablo Hernandez of Celta was just two metres away, We continue on the same path, It was not only Koeverman or other scouts from Indian clubs who were following his progress, He was part of the team that was later promoted to I-League 1st Division last year. (Source: Top News Liverpool Manager Jurgen Klopp has claimed that Liverpool is the team that nobody would want to face in the Champions League group stage. "There is a lot to be done in Pakistan cricket and things can’t change in a few months time.
Munna Rai and Gautam Gulati were the others mentioned in the complaint. Whatever I learnt I learnt from her but we had separate priorities so we decided it is best if we part ways," he said. Froome.