An example of the new dating technique can be seen with Windmill Hill. Originally it was believed to have been built between 3,700BC and 3,100BC. The new dating technique has narrowed down that time frame to between 3,700BC and 3,640BC.The Neolithic period occurred in Britain between 4000BC and 2000BC when residents began to settle into an agricultural way of life instead of nomadic hunters and gatherers. According to the lead archaeologist Dr. Alex Bayliss, farming began in the south-east region of England a few decades before 4,000BC. It progressed to western parts of England over a period of about two centuries before there was a sudden increase in development.The building of causewayed enclosures throughout Britain were originally believed to have spread over the course of five centuries, but this new dating technique shows that it was much more rapid and spanned only about 75 years. Evidence also shows that the construction of these enclosures created a hierarchy of some sort that led to violence and challenges, with many of the enclosures showing evidence of attacks with large numbers of arrows.It is the hope of researchers that this new dating technology which looks at the radiocarbon date of organic materials within a statistical model may be used to better date other events around the world such as the collapse of the Mayans and the development of farming in China. Neolithic Britain revealed © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: New computer dating technology changing the history of Britain (2011, June 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-dating-technology-history-britain.html Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — In a new study called Gathering Time published this month, archaeologists from English Heritage and Cardiff University have been able to create an accurate timeline of the first 700 years of settlement in Britain. Using a newly refined computer and dating system, the researchers have been able to accurately date battle, migrations and construction. This new dating system has changed what was originally believed to have taken place over a time span of 700 years and narrowed it down to less than 100 years. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Competition for Graphene: Graphynes with Direction-Dependent Dirac Cones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 086804 (2012) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.086804AbstractThe existence of Dirac cones in the band structure of two-dimensional materials accompanied by unprecedented electronic properties is considered to be a unique feature of graphene related to its hexagonal symmetry. Here, we present other two-dimensional carbon materials, graphynes, that also possess Dirac cones according to first-principles electronic structure calculations. One of these materials, 6,6,12-graphyne, does not have hexagonal symmetry and features two self-doped nonequivalent distorted Dirac cones suggesting electronic properties even more amazing than that of graphene.via Focus Citation: Computer simulations suggest graphynes may be even more useful than graphene (2012, March 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-simulations-graphynes-graphene.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com Greaphene, it has been noted, has conduction electrons whose energies are directly proportional to their momentum. It has also been noted that when their energy levels are plotted in three dimensions, they take on the shape of a Dirac cone. Because of this unique relationship, the conduction electrons behave as if they were massless, allowing them to travel at very near the speed of light, a very useful property when looking to improve on such things as current transistor technology.Unlike graphene, which has single or double bonds, graphyne can have double or triple bonds, and it’s not restricted to just a hexagonal pattern. Indeed the number of patterns that it can exist as appears to be almost limitless.In this new research, the team looked at three graphyne pattern types with their computer simulation and found all of them capable of producing a Dirac cone, albeit in a slightly different shape; but perhaps most importantly, one of them called 6,6,12-graphyne, which exists as a pattern of rectangles, should allow electrons to travel in just one direction. Because of this, the researchers say, materials could be made that didn’t require “dopant” or nancarbon atoms to provide a source for the electrons, such as the case with graphene.Despite the fact that only very small pieces of graphyne have ever been made, researchers are excited about this research because it has shown that many graphyne pattern types exist that are capable of producing a Dirac cone, which means many other materials may be capable of doing so as well. The secrets of tunneling through energy barriers Journal information: Physical Review Letters (PhysOrg.com) — The past several years have seen a virtual explosion in the amount of research dedicated to graphene and as a result there has been a nearly constant stream of news pertaining to new discoveries regarding its attributes. Now it appears, graphene is about to be upstaged by a more interesting cousin called graphyne. Graphene, as most everyone is aware by now, is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal or chicken-wire pattern. Graphyne is also a single layer of carbon atoms, but it comes in several different types of patterns, which likely make it more versatile. Now new computer simulations regarding its properties have been done by a team of researchers in Germany, who report in Physical Review Letters, that their research shows that some types of graphyne structures allow for electron flow in just one direction. Explore further The carbon lattice in this 6,6,12-graphyne has a rectangular symmetry, unlike the hexagonal symmetry of graphene. Image: D. Malko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2012)
Citation: Study suggests Sino-Tibetan language family originated in present-day northern China (2019, April 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-sino-tibetan-language-family-present-day-northern.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Reviving Brazil’s indigenous languages © 2019 Science X Network Most scientists who study language and its history agree that most of the languages that are spoken today across the globe originated from much smaller subsets. The Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages, for example, are believed to have originated from a proto-language that is now labeled as the Indo-European family of languages—this family represents the most spoken language family in the world today. The second most spoken language family is called the Sino-Tibetan language family and it includes Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan and approximately 400 other languages. This second largest group represents approximately 20 percent of people alive today, or one and a half billion people. In this new effort, the researchers sought to settle a longstanding debate in the linguistics community—did the Sino-Tibetan language family originate in northern or southern China, or perhaps even somewhere else. And when did it come to exist?To find the answer, the researchers applied a wide variety of tools to the problem, from multiple fields. Their approach involved building an evolutionary tree similar to that used in the biology fields—from the top down. The branches at the top would represent languages spoken today and the base would represent the Sino-Tibetan proto-language. To build their tree, the researchers used genetic and linguistic data and borrowed tools from computational biology and anthropology. They also used historical information such as groups of people migrating. During the later stages of their work, the team applied probability testing to help build the branches on their tree.In the end, the researchers found that the Sino-Tibetan language family likely originated in northern parts of China and spread south and west as people moved to farm new lands. They also suggest the language family likely got its start prior to 6000 years ago—their tree showed that time frame as the point at which the first branches began to appear. All authors are discussing our findings during in our paper. Left to right- Shi Yan, Wuyun Pan, Li Jin, Menghan Zhang. Credit: Liao Mu Journal information: Nature A small team of researchers affiliated with several institutions across China has conducted an in-depth study of the Sino-Tibetan language family and has concluded that it likely originated in present-day northern China. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their research efforts and the conclusions they drew from them. Randy LaPolla with Nanyang Technological University, in Singapore, has published a News and Views piece describing the work by the team in the same journal issue. More information: Menghan Zhang et al. Phylogenetic evidence for Sino-Tibetan origin in northern China in the Late Neolithic, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1153-z Explore further
When the new government is picking pace, the sakes of investment and economy raise on the cards a sense for the art investments is running in all minds. Focusing this Creativity Art Gallery is showcasing their best refined artists with the show Winds of Change for the correct investment for modern enthusiast collectors. The separation of modern and contemporary in an in vain topic to discuss but all we require is exact direction to stream the investment in exact direction. The exhibition will include best and fresh collection of popular artists like, Binoy Verghse, Geroge Martin PJ, Farhad Hussain, Jagdish Chinthala, Chandra Bhattacharya and Tejinder kanda. The show is confined to promote high end paintings in affordable price ranges. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Discussing this aspect gallery is launching this marvellous show with plenty of collections by these discussed artists. ‘The gallery earned fantabulous response in last India Art Fair and following that this was the most awaited concept’ says curator Debabrota Das. The gallery also mentions that the wind of buying only modern artists work was well in form till last month but with these new political changes the economy and scopes of every sector is well expected, and following this only the show is entitled as Winds of Change. The participating artists are – Binoy Verghse, Chandra Bhattacharya, Farhad Hussain, Jagdish Chinthala, Tejinder Kanda.Where: Creativity Art Gallery, 29, GF, Hauz Khas Village Where: 18 to 30 May Timings: 10:30 am – 7:30Pm
Sandwiched between heaven and earth, crowned with sanctity, greened by acres of sacred groves, there is a place whose beauty is parallel to none. Sammed Shikharji transcends the superlatives of scenic beauty with its stunning scenery. What could be a better treat for the senses of devotees who take up this venerable pilgrimage in the Jain faith? This ancient tirth is considered the holiest since 20 out of the 24 Tirthankars attained Nirvana here. To revive the memory of this holy place of Jainism and to tell the story of Jain Saints in the form of pictures, Varun Joshi has come up with a coffee table book on the famous pilgrimage site of the Jains. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Sammed Shikharji, meaning vulnerable peak, is nestled on the Parasnath Hill in Girdih district of Jharkhand and it is believed that a visit to this sacred place destroys bad karma and eliminates troubles. The picturesque land is dotted with several temples, each important in its own right. The land of penance and nirvana, Shikharji is surrounded by the Madhuban forest and cradled by yawing valleys. This is where the 27km ascent starts for the pilgrimage. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe experience of the pilgrimage and the unmatched beauty that surrounds the holy place has been captured in its most pristine and exquisite form by photographer Varun Joshi in his book Shikharji. To have undertaken the arduous pilgrimage and come back with stunning shots is no mean feat! Each image in his book brings to life the elements at their glorious best – like the silence of the forests, the chill at the peaks, the smell of wood, the sacred air and much more. The pictures are rife with stories of grandeur, fortitude and the sacred. His book is the only book that has ever featured Shikharji so perfectly. The coffee table book which covers the age old temples, other monumental wonders, the greater thinkers and above all the unique tenants of the faith has been sponsored by the Jain body- Paras Foundation.Varun Joshi has several coffee table books to his credit, but he considers this book as the most enriching experience. The pictures are a mere reflection of what I saw there, but what I experienced cannot be interpreted in any image’, says the photographer who is scaling new heights with every passing book. The book is so popular among Jains that it’s 1,000 copies have been sold already and 5,000 more copies are under print. His previous coffee table books include Jainism (Digambar), Jainism (Swetambar), Hyderabad, Pushkar, Digah, Dilwara (Mount Abu) and Brij. A coffee table book on Telangana is also under publication.
Youtube has struck a deal to license music from thousands of independent record labels, setting the stage for the launch of its long-awaited subscription service and rival Sweden’s Spotify and Apple’s Beat Music.The deal with rights agency Merlin was signed recently after months of acrimonious negotiations, in which YouTube threatened to take down music videos by artists such as Adele and the Arctic Monkeys if its demands were not met, the Financial Times reported. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashThe agreement paves the way for the Google-owned company to finally launch a paid-for music service, which will compete with Spotify, the Swedish streaming service, Deezer of France and?Apple’s Beats Music.Merlin represents more than 20,000 labels from 39 countries.‘One of the last significant obstacles to getting to market has been removed,’ said Mark Mulligan, music analyst at MIDiA Research.YouTube, the world’s biggest online video service, plans to start rolling out its paid tier within weeks, according to people familiar with the matter.The new service will allow users, who pay a monthlyfee to listen to music and watch videos, without the interruption of advertising. Other features include the ability to save music for offline listening.
Kolkata: In a rare heart surgery, the SSKM Hospital has given a fresh lease of life to a 23-year-old woman from West Midnapore, suffering from critical structural defect in her aorta, the main great vessel coming out of the heart that supplies blood into the whole body.A team of doctors at the Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery (CTVS) and Cardio Thoracic Vascular Anaesthesia (CTVA) departments of the SSKM performed the surgery on the patient, Purnima Bera (23) that lasted for nearly eight hours. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe operation was carried out on last Saturday after she was admitted to the hospital.A resident of Amarda village of Mohanpur in West Midnapore, she was suffering from severe chest pain following which her family members took her to Mohanpur block hospital. Bera was later shifted to Egra Superspecialty hospital but due to lack of adequate infrastructure she was again transferred back to the city. She was finally brought to the emergency department of the SSKM a few days ago. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe patient was referred to the CTVS department from Cardiology. It was found that the patient was suffering from Aortic dissection after conducting echocardiography. CT angiography could not be performed on the patient as her condition deteriorated. The doctors decided to operate the patient as her chest pain aggravated. She had dissecting aortic aneurysm extending up to iliac arteries (of lower abdomen) and it was circumferential in nature, that is whole aorta was dilated throughout its whole circumference. A team of doctors from CTVS and CTVA (Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia), headed by Dr Santanu Dutta and Dr Shubhendu Mahapatra performed the rare surgery. Aortic dissection is a serious condition in which there is a tear in the wall of the major artery carrying blood out of the heart (aorta). As the tear extends along the wall of the aorta, blood can flow in between the layers of the blood vessel wall (dissection). This can lead to aortic rupture followed by instantaneous death or decreased blood flow (ischemia) to organs.Ascending aortic replacement was done with a Dacron synthetic graft using a peripheral artery cannulation technique under cardiopulmorary bypass. Because of this peripheral cannulation technique and due to the extension of the disease, it took nearly nine hours to complete the entire operation.”Cardiopulmonary bypass continued for nearly four and a half hours with an aortic clamp time of three hours. Hemostasis (arresting bleeding) was one of the major tasks after the successful repairing of the defect. The next challenge was successful weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass uneventfully after such prolonged bypass time,” Dr Kakali Ghosh of CTVA said.The patient was shifted to the recovery unit. She has been kept under observation in the critical care unit. The post operative care is also equally important in any cardiac surgery, the doctors observed. Aortic dissection most often happens because of a tear or damage to the inner wall of the aorta.
Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is considered to be one of the finest plays written on the subject of women’s rights, having the distinction of being the most performed play internationally. It is perhaps so because it’s as close as one could get to the truth of hypocrisy in accepted gender roles in a marriage notwithstanding the writer’s claim that the play is a description of humanity and self-discovery.The New Delhi players’ adaptation of Ibsen’s play, presented last weekend, revolves around the characters of Nora and Torvald Helmer. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Nora and Torvald Helmer believe that they are happily married and are on the brink of a blissful new phase of life. Torvald has been promoted to the position of a bank manager with their financial future set. But Nora has a secret debt, incurred with good intentions and a forged signature, which rears its head as the threat of blackmail appears alongside her husband’s new power. Over three acts the illusion of the bourgeois contentment unravels with the play culminating in a spectacular scene where Nora’s lie is exposed and Torvald first blames, then forgives her – and is finally abandoned as Nora recognizes the truth of her situation. She accuses her husband, and her father of having used her as a doll, and declares herself unfit to be a wife or mother until she learns to be herself. The play is as relevant today as it was in 1879. In the century and more since, the play and the role of Nora have taken on iconic status.
Kolkata: Various agencies of the state government have started doing patchwork along the stretches of all the important roads in the city, where potholes have been created due to heavy showers for the past few days.Incessant rain in the city and its adjoining areas have bared the skeletons of major roads, causing difficulties to the commuters, the bikers especially. Agencies like PWD, KMDA, KMC and others are taking all possible measures to repair the damaged portions of roads. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeDiamond Harbour Road has also developed countless pockmarks as the rain has damaged the bituminous surface. The worst stretch of DH Road is near Behala Chowrasta, where craters are wide and deep. It may be mentioned here that Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has instructed Mayor Sovan Chatterjee to take necessary steps to repair the potholes on Diamond Harbour Road. Repair work has been started on DH Road on a war footing.People commuting along the EM Bypass have been in precarious condition, particularly where the Metro Railway constructions have been going on. Areas where Metro construction is in progress have become a nightmare for the commuters. It may be mentioned here that the temporary patchworks do not last more than a few months. The state agencies are unable to re-lay the road due to the on-going construction of Metro Railways. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAround a 17 km stretch between Garia and Ultadanga, many potholes have been created due to heavy rain this season so far. People are witnessing a bumpy ride due to the bad condition of EM Bypass. It has become difficult for the agencies like PWD, KMDA to repair the potholes as the heavy rainfall is washing away the patchwork in various stretches.In some stretches of Jessore Road, big craters have been created with the advent of monsoon in the state. Patchwork has begun to tackle the situation. According to the experts, many heavy duty trucks plying through Jessore Road everyday has been causing uneven pressure on the road. The situation is common for other roads as well. The incessant rain has further complicated the situation as water percolates down to the bottom of the road and damages it. Patchworks do not always necessarily provide the permanent solution, felt the experts.State Urban Development minister Firhad Hakim said that in most of the parts of the city and its adjoining areas the soil is soft, as a result of which it gets washed away during heavy rain. Due to such incidents, roads often cave in.
Compassion shapes our behaviour towards a person wronged and a wrongdoer and may lead us to help the wronged than to punish the wrongdoer, researchers have found.According to researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US, a new set of studies suggests that compassion — and intentionally cultivating it through training —impacts the extent to which people punish the transgressor.“Any action — helping or punishing — can arise from compassion, which involves at least two components: a ‘feeling’ component of empathic concern and caring for the suffering of another; and a cognitive, motivational component of wanting to alleviate that suffering,” said lead researcher Helen Weng. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Published in the journal PLoS ONE, the findings said understanding what motivates people to be altruistic can not only inform our own behaviours, it may also play a role in creating more just societal institutions, including the legal and penal systems.These findings are built upon previous work by Weng and others, which demonstrates that as little as two weeks of compassion training can result in measurable changes in the brain.These previous studies measured altruistic behaviour in research subjects but did not separate helping and punishing behaviour to learn which is most related to compassion. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixTo answer this question, the investigators tested whether compassion was related to helping or punishment in two studies where participants played the “Helping Game” or “Punishment Game”, using real money they could keep at the end of the game.In both games, participants watched through online interactions as one player with more funds chose to split an unfair amount of money with another player with no funds.In the Helping Game, the third-party observers could choose to do nothing or give some of their own funds to “help” the victim.In the Punishment Game, the third-party observers could choose to do nothing or “punish” the transgressor by spending their own funds to take money away from the wrongdoer.“People with higher empathic concern were more likely to help the victim than punish the transgressor. “But, interestingly, within the group of people who decided to punish the transgressor, those with more empathic concern decided to punish less,” Weng noted after the studies.