Dynamics of the Antarctic and Arctic mesosphere and lower thermosphere – Part 1: Mean winds

first_imgZonal and meridional winds have been measured in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere at polar latitudes using two ground-based meteor radars. One radar is located at Rothera (68° S, 68° W) in the Antarctic and has been operational since February 2005. The second radar is located at Esrange (68° N, 21° E) in the Arctic and has been operational since October 1999. Both radars have produced relatively continuous measurements. Here we consider measurements made up to the end of 2009. Both radars are of similar design and at conjugate geographical latitudes, making the results directly comparable and thus allowing investigation of the differences in the mean winds of the Antarctic and Arctic regions. The data from each radar have been used to construct climatologies of monthly-mean zonal and meridional winds at heights between 80 and 100 km. Both Antarctic and Arctic data sets reveal seasonally varying zonal and meridional winds in which the broad pattern repeats from year to year. In particular, the zonal winds display a strong shear in summer associated with the upper part of the westward summertime zonal jet. The winds generally reverse to eastward flow at heights of ~90 km. The zonal winds are eastward throughout the rest of the year. The meridional winds are generally equatorward over both sites, although brief episodes of poleward flow are often evident near the equinoxes and during winter. The strongest equatorward flows occur at heights of ~90 km during summer. There are significant differences between the mean winds observed in the Antarctic and Arctic. In particular, the westward winds in summer are stronger and occur earlier in the season in the Antarctic compared with the Arctic. The eastward winds evident above the summertime zonal wind reversal are significantly stronger in the Arctic. The summertime equatorward flow in the Antarctic is slightly weaker, but occurs over a greater depth than is the case in the Arctic. Comparisons of these observations with those of the URAP and HWM-07 empirical models reveal a number of significant differences. In particular, the zonal winds observed in the Antarctic during wintertime are significantly weaker than those of URAP. However, the URAP zonal winds are a good match to the observations of the Arctic. Significant differences are evident between the observations and HWM-07. In particular, the strong wintertime zonal winds of the Arctic in HWM-07 are not evident in the observations and the summertime zonal winds in HWM-07 are systematically stronger than observed. The agreement with meridional winds is generally poor. There is a significant amount of inter-annual variability in the observed zonal and meridional winds. Particularly high variability is observed in the Arctic zonal winds in spring and is probably associated with stratospheric warmings.last_img read more


Citizens Financial Group pays customers for helping the environment

first_imgCitizens Financial Group pays customersfor helping the environment Green$ense is a first-of-its-kind program that rewards customers with cash for reducing paper-based payment transactionsBURLINGTON, V.T. – (October 7, 2008) Citizens Financial Group today announced its Citizens Bank and Charter One customers will earn money for helping the environment by reducing paper through an industry-first incentive program that pays customers cash for making electronic-banking payment transactions.”At Citizens, we are committed to offering customers products and services that make a meaningful difference in their everyday lives,” said Theresa McLaughlin, Group Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer at Citizens Financial Group. “With Green$ense, we pay customers for changing their habits in a manner that not only makes banking more convenient and their lives more manageable, but also is beneficial for the environment. We are pleased to offer this first-of-its-kind program to our customers, and proud of the impact it will have on the environment.”Now available to new and existing Citizens Bank and Charter One retail customers, Green$ense rewards customers $0.10 for each electronic payment they make, up to $10 per month and $120 per year. Unlike other incentive programs, Green$ense deposits cash directly into a customer’s checking account on a monthly basis, providing greater savings and spending flexibility. And, rather than limiting cash payouts to debit card transactions, customers enrolled in Green$ense earn money for debit card purchases (signature and PIN), online bill payments and recurring payments, making it the most robust program of its kind in the industry.Enrollment in Green$ense is free for all Citizens Bank and Charter One customers with a checking account, including Green Checking, the bank’s free checking product. There are no minimum balance requirements and no hidden fees. As an added perk, customers who enroll in the program will receive an industry-first Green$ense MasterCard debit card made from recycled plastic. Customers also will be enrolled automatically in online banking with free Bill Pay and receive paperless statements.According to the U.S. Postal Service, the average U.S. family receives approximately 19 bills and statements and makes seven payments in paper per month. By eliminating these paper statements and processing these transactions electronically, the average family can save about seven pounds of paper, 63 gallons of water and 24 square feet of forest a year according to Cooler, Inc. Citizens and Charter One customers can calculate the individual effect they will have on the environment by reducing their paper-based transactions with a special online calculator available at the Citizens and Charter One Web sites.Customers who enroll in Green$ense will automatically receive their banking statements electronically. Using a conservative enrollment estimate, Citizens Financial Group expects the program to save 700,000 pounds of paper and nearly seven million gallons of water in the first year of the program alone.Each month, customers enrolled in Green$ense will receive an e-mail from Citizens or Charter One providing tips for a greener lifestyle and a summary of the impact the program has had on the environment.CFG is promoting Green$ense to customers throughout its retail footprint with a multi-media campaign that includes broadcast and online advertising. Green$ense promotional items have been printed on recycled materials.Customers can begin the enrollment process online at www.citizensbank.com(link is external) or www.charteronebank.com(link is external), by calling the bank’s 24-hour, live customer service line at 1-888-910-4100 (Citizens) or 1-877-242-7837 (Charter One), or by visiting any Citizens Bank or Charter One branch. All customers, existing and new, will then be required to “e-sign” through online banking to confirm enrollment.About Citizens Financial Group, Inc.Citizens Financial Group, Inc. is a $161 billion commercial bank holding company. It is headquartered in Providence, R.I., and, through its subsidiaries, has more than 1,600 branches, more than 3,500 ATMs and more than 24,000 employees. Its two bank subsidiaries are RBS Citizens, N.A. and Citizens Bank of Pennsylvania. They operate a 13-state branch network under the Citizens Bank brand in Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont, and the Charter One brand in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Ohio. CFG has non-branch retail and commercial offices in about 40 states. It is one of the 10 largest commercial banking companies in the United States ranked by assets and deposits. CFG is owned by RBS (The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc). CFG’s Web site is citizensbank.com.last_img read more


Man Utd ready to test Arsenal resolve with Aubameyang offer

first_img Loading… Promoted ContentWhy Do So Many Digital Assistants Have Feminine Names & Voices?7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend Better11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table TopWhat Happens To Your Brain When You Play Too Much Video Games?Top 10 Most Romantic Nations In The WorldCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable Way14 Hilarious Comics Made By Women You Need To Follow Right Now10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do7 Black Hole Facts That Will Change Your View Of The Universe7 Ways To Understand Your Girlfriend Better13 kids at weddings who just don’t give a hootA Guy Turns Gray Walls And Simple Bricks Into Works Of Art Manchester United are joining the battle for Arsenal striker Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang. The Sun says United are considering a stunning bid to try to sign Aubameyang, and are confident they could land the player for £50m. Aubameyang has become one of the most lethal strikers in the Premier League since signing for the Gunners in 2018 and he has scored an impressive 61 goals in 96 appearances in all competitions.Advertisement There is doubt over his future at the club, however, as his contract is due to expire next June, and Arsenal are worried that he could leave on a free transfer. Read Also:Bellerin demands Arsenal captaincy should Aubameyang quit They are therefore thought to be considering selling the player this summer and United are set to launch a surprise bid. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 last_img read more